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At about the same time, the French began immigrating in large numbers to Algeria, in an attempt by the French government to replace Algerian culture with their own.

By 1881 there were 300,000 Europeans (half of them French) in an area of 2.5 million Arabs.

The Algerian war for independence broke out in 1954, when the National Liberation Army (ALN)—the military arm of the National Liberation Front (FLN)—staged guerrilla attacks on French military and communication posts and called on all Muslims to join their struggle. In 1959 De Gaulle, who was now president of France, issued a promise of independence to the colony, but the next year proceeded to send troops to restore order.

Over the next four years the French sent almost half a million troops to Algeria. In 1961 leaders of the FLN met with the French government, and the following year, Algeria finally won its independence. He was head of the government and of the FLN, the country's sole political party.

The second Muslim conquest saw a great shift in Berber civilization, as the people were forced to convert in great numbers or to flee to the hills.

However, as internal conflicts began to sway the Muslim stronghold in North Africa in the fifteenth century, Europeans capitalized on this, and by 1510 Spain had seized Algiers, Oran, and other important port cities. In retaliation for Algerian debts and insolence toward the European nation, they blockaded several Algerian ports, and when this did not succeed, they invaded Algiers on 5 July 1830.

The climate is desert like, although the coast does receive rain in the winter.

Only 3 percent of the land is arable, this along the Mediterranean.

Most of the population of the country is in the north. It borders Tunisia and Libya to the east; Niger, Mali, and Mauritania to the south; Morocco and Western Sahara to the west; and the Mediterranean Sea to the north.Inland from the coast is the High Plateau region, with an elevation of 1,300 to 4,300 feet (396 to 1,311 meters).This is mostly rocky and dry, dotted with vegetation on which cattle, sheep, and goats graze.The star, crescent, and the color green are all symbolic of the Islamic religion. The Berbers were the original inhabitants of the region.The first invaders were the Phoenicians, whose empire covered the area that is today Lebanon.

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