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Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine used to treat a number of conditions including allergic symptoms and itchiness, the common cold, insomnia, motion sickness, and extrapyramidal symptoms.Topical formulations of diphenhydramine are available, including creams, lotions, gels, and sprays.Because of these additive effects, these medications taken with other sedatives or alcohol (also a sedative hypnotic drug) may increase chances for accidental death.In general, most of the medications that induce sedation may alter breathing and cardiac stability.Benzodiazepines (common sedative medication) have a cumulative effect.This means that if the patient has not had time to metabolize the previous dose and ingests more, then the sedative effect may increase.These are used to relieve itching and have the advantage of causing fewer systemic effects (e.g., drowsiness) than oral forms.
In 2014 this product had annual sales of over 0 million and had a 29.3% share of the 1 million sleep-aid market category.
Second, sedation for uncooperative patients may expedite and simplify special procedures that require little or no movement.
Additionally, sedation is often desirable to diminish fear associated with operative procedures.
Diphenhydramine also acts as an intracellular sodium channel blocker, which is responsible for its actions as a local anesthetic.
A 1985 review of antihistamine pharmacokinetics found that the elimination half-life of diphenhydramine ranged between 3.4 and 9.3 hours across five studies, with a median elimination half-life of 4.3 hours. Analogues of diphenhydramine include orphenadrine, an anticholinergic, nefopam, an analgesic, and tofenacin, an antidepressant.